Category Archives: Case Reports

Hydrops Fetalis_Joseph

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The role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of hydrops fetalis: A case report
Joseph DZ,1 Igashi J,2 Joseph G,1  Aliyu L,1# Kadas S,1,2 Samuel S3
Clinical Radiographer,1,3 Consultant Radiologist,2 Consultant Obstetrician,1# Nurse1
1Department of Radiology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital, Bauchi, Nigeria, 2Department  of Radiology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria,3Department of Radiography and Radiological Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
ABSTRACT
The objective of this report was to show the role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of hydrops fetalis. The sonographic assessment revealed that there was increased amniotic fluid with hyperplacentosis. The transonic fluid interface was noted in the fetal abdomen in keeping with fetal ascites. There was bilateral pleural effusion with obvious subcutaneous scalp edema and right scrotal hydrocele. Ultrasound imaging is very effective and adequate in the diagnosis of hydrops fetalis.
KEY WORDS
Diagnosis, fetalis, hydrocele, hydrops, ultrasonography.

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Suprascapular foramen_Jangde

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Bony suprascapular foramen, a potential site for suprascapular nerve compression: A case report
Jangde S,1 Arya R,2 Paikra S3
Assistant Professor,1 Associate Professor,2 Demonstrator3
1-3Department of Anatomy, Chhattisgarh Institute of Medical Science, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India
ABSTRACT
Suprascapular notch is the site where the suprascapular nerve traverses the upper border of the scapulae under the superior transverse scapular ligament (STSL). The anterior coracoscapular ligament runs in the suprascapular notch, below the STSL. Narrowed bony foramen by complete ossification of these ligaments may be one of the predisposing factors for suprascapular nerve compression. We report the two cases of the bony suprascapular foramen, scapula with complete suprascapular foramen and scapula with suprascapular foramen with the notch. The aim of our case report is to provide knowledge on the variations along the course of suprascapular nerve which is essential to understanding the source of the entrapment syndrome. A thorough knowledge of anatomical variations in the suprascapular region and ossification of suprascapular ligament is important for anatomists, orthopedicians, radiologists, and neurosurgeons to obtain a safe zone which would be useful to avoid iatrogenic nerve lesion and for better diagnosis and management of the nerve entrapment syndrome.
KEY WORDS
Anatomical variations, anterior coracoscapular ligament, entrapment syndrome, superior transverse scapular ligament, suprascapular foramen and notch, and suprascapular nerve.

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Rhinolith_Mundra

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Rhinolith a rare presentation in adolescent age group
Mundra RK,Verma JR,Koshta V,Gupta A3
Associate Professor and Head of Department,1 Assistant Professor,2 Postgraduate Student3
1-3Department of ENT, Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Medical College, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
ABSTRACT
Rhinolith is rare calcareous concretions that are formed by the deposition of salts on an intranasal foreign body. The foreign body acts as a nidus that causes obstruction of nasal secretions, acute and chronic infl ammation, deposition of minerals and enzymatic activities of bacterial pathogens, leading to slow and progressive increases in size. Symptoms are normally progressive unilateral nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea (usually purulent and fetid), cacosmia, and epistaxis. Other less common symptoms include headaches, facial pain, and epiphora. They are usually found in the anterior part of the nasal cavity and are usually diagnosed on history and anterior rhinoscopy. A 16-year-old female presented with complains of headache, diffi culty in breathing from left nostril, prolonged runny nose with foul smell, and at times bloody nasal discharge for the 1 year. Otolaryngeal clinical examination revealed deviated nasal septum toward the right side. The left nasal cavity appeared wide with a hard mass lying on the fl oor of the left nasal cavity which was irregular in shape with a rough surface and was slightly mobile but tender and with bleeding tendency. A diagnosis of rhinolith was clinically made, and the patient was admitted for removal of the rhinolith. Computed tomography paranasal sinuses were done, the impression was irregular shaped calcifi ed rhinolith seen in left nasal cavity. Although rhinoliths are rare, attending clinicians should keep in mind during the examination of patients. It requires a high index of suspicion when dealing with nasal symptoms such as progressive unilateral nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea (usually purulent and fetid), cacosmia, and unilateral nasal bleeding.
KEY WORDS
Foreign body, nasal obstruction, rhinolithiasis.

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Tonsillar Papilloma_Mundra

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Tonsillar papilloma: A rare case
Mundra RK,1 Verma JR,2 Gupta A,3 Vishal Koshta,3 Rathore SK3
Associate Professor and Head of department,1 Assistant Professor,2 Postgraduate Student3
1-3Department of ENT, Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Medical College, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
ABSTRACT
Benign oropharyngeal tumors are far less common compared to malignant tumors. Squamous papillomas are exophytic  masses of the oral cavity. It is an innocuous lesion that is neither transmissible nor threatening. Pedunculated squamous papilloma usually arises from the soft palate, tonsil, or the epiglottis. A 32-year-old female presented with odynophagia on and off for 5 months. History regarding the growth revealed that it was fi rst seen 6 months prior as a slow-growing non-tender papule. The present lesion was exophytic and sessile in nature, pinkish in color with a pebbled surface, soft in consistency, 2 cm × 2 cm in size, and situated on left tonsil. Surgical excision of the lesion was performed. The histopathological diagnosis of squamous papilloma was made. The squamous cell papilloma is a benign tumor with a rare entity arising on tonsil which caused unusual odynophagia (symptomatic) of long duration.
KEY WORDS
Odynophagia, pedunculated, squamous papilloma, tonsils.

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Pancreatic Pseudocyst_Sonkar

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A rare case of pancreatic pseudocyst involving liver and spleen
Devangan M,1 Sonkar SK,2 Sharma S3
Assistant Professor,1,2 Associate Professor3
1-3Department of Surgery, Pt. J. N. M. Medical College, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
ABSTRACT
A pancreatic pseudocyst is a common complication of acute and chronic pancreatitis. We present the case of a 27-yearold man with pancreatic pseudocyst involving liver and spleen. Most of the pseudocysts are located within the head and the body of the pancreas but 20% are extrapancreatic. Several locations of the pancreatic pseudocyst such as pleura, mediastinum, and the pelvis, have been described. We present a rare case of pancreatic pseudocyst involving left lobe of liver and upper pole of the spleen.
KEY WORDS
Liver, pancreatic pseudocyst, spleen.

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Pyoderma Gangrenosum_Narayan SR

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A case report of pyoderma gangrenosum in bartholin abscess: A rare misdiagnosis
Narayan SR1, Avishek DO2, Sujata S3, Monalisa P4, Kumar TT5

Assistant Professor,1 Senior resident,2 Associate Professor,3 Post Graduate4,5

1-5Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SCB Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha, India
ABSTRACT
Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare ulcerative cutaneous condition due to dysregulation of immune system with a female predominance. A 20yr old unmarried female presented with chief complaint of fever and a painful perineal swelling with foul smelling discharge  from it and was initially diagnosed as a Bartholin abscess for which drainage with marsupialisation done. But in a time of 3days it turned into a necrotizing ulcer and was re-diagnosed with help of dermatologists as pyoderma gangrenosum which responded well to steroids by rapid healing.
KEY WORDS
Bartholin abscess, cutaneous ulcer, pyoderma gangrenosum.

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Neurofibroma in Neurofibromatosis_Khandwal Onkar

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Bilateral plexiform neurofibroma in Neurofibromatosis type 1: A case report and literature review
Phuljhele S,1 Hura KS,2 Ramnani K,2 Khandwal O3
Associate Professor & Head,1 Assistant Professor,2 Associate Professsor3
1-3Department of Pediatrics, PT JNM Medical College & BR Ambedkar Memorial Hospital, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
ABSTRACT
Neurofibromatosis Type 1 is a multisystem autosomal dominant neurocutaneous disorder. Plexiform neurofibroma involves peripheral and cranial nerves. It is usually congenital in origin and a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality.
KEY WORDS
Neurofibromatosis Type 1, plexiform neurofibroma, scoliosis.

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Thanatophoric dysplasia_Ghanghoriya Pawan

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Thanatophoric dysplasia type 1: A rare case of recurrence
Ghanghoriya P,1 Ghanghoriya V,2 Singh KN, 3 Pahariya R4
Associate Professor,1,3 Assistant professor,2 Resident4
1Department of Pediatrics, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Medical College, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India2,3,4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Medical College, Jabalpur, Madhya
ABSTRACT
Thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) is the most common form of lethal dysplasias. The prevalence is low 1/20000-1/40000. Newborns with TD died within the neonatal period. Early diagnosis is of prime importance to terminate the pregnancy in time. Recurrence of TD is not reported, but the possibility is always there.
KEY WORDS
Early antenatal diagnosis, recurrence, thanatophoric dysplasia.

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Collodion baby_Khandwal Onkar

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Collodion baby: A case report
Phuljhele S,1 Hura KS,2 Khandwal O3
Associate Professor & Head,1 Assistant Professor,2 Associate Professsor3

1-3Department of Pediatrics, PT JNM Medical College & BR Ambedkar Memorial Hospital, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India

ABSTRACT
Collodion baby is a genodermatosis in which neonate’s whole body is covered with thick skin termed as collodion membrane. Majority of collodion baby eventually develop autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis. It is associated with high morbidity and mortality.
KEY WORDS
Collodion baby, congenital disorder, genodermatosis

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Endometriosis_Ashfaq

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The rare case of broad ligament endometriosis

Hassan AU,1 Khanday S,2 Zahida R,3 Ara R,4 Salem A5

1,2Department of Anatomy, Sheri Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences College Bemina, Srinagar, Kashmir, India.3Department of Medicine, Dubai Girls endometriosis Medical College, Dubai, UAE.

4,5Department of Obstetrics and gynecology, IUST Awantipora, Srinagar, Kashmir, India.

ABSTRACT
Endometriosis is a relatively common condition. However, endometriosis at atypical sites is rare. We present a rare case of endometrium present in the broad ligament of uterus.
KEY WORDS
Broad ligament, Endometriosis, Mesosalpinx, Ovary,Mesometrium, Mesoovarium

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