Category Archives: Research Articles

Diabetes Mellitus Anthropometry_Chaurasia

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Identify the existence of general and central obesity and anthropometric measurements in the diabetic population 
Chaurasia HL,1 Chaorasia RS2
Assistant Professor1,2
1Department of Physiology, Sewakunj MIMS Medical College & Research Centre, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India, 2Department of Anatomy, Index Medical College Hospital & Research Centre, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
ABSTRACT
Introduction:Obesity is usually defined according to body mass index (BMI) cut-offs. However, BMI cannot provide information on the distribution of body fat. Central obesity, as assessed by waist circumference (WC), is more strongly associated with the risk of hypertension, dyslipidaemia, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and all-cause mortality.

Aim:

To identify the existence of general and central obesity by anthropometric measurements and to compare anthropometric parameters in the control and prediabetic subjects.

Material and Method:

The present study was conducted in the department of Physiology Gandhi Medical College and associated Hamidia Hospital Bhopal, during 2010 – 2011. The Fasting Blood sugar, Lipid Profile and Fasting Insulin Biochemical investigation was done in the department of Biochemistry of the institute. The anthropometric measurement including Weight (kg), Height (cm), Body mass index (kg/m2), Waist circumference (cm), Hip circumference (cm), Waist Hip ratio. was recorded.

Result:

The 120 subjects aged 30-60, maximum numbers of Prediabetic were in the age group of 40-50 years. In the control group 66% women as compared to the men 32%, In prediabetic group 72% subjects were showed general obesity, central adiposity was identified in 84%. It was observed that body mass index and waist circumference were significantly higher in prediabetic subject.

Conclusion:

This study has important implications for identification of subjects at higher risk for future type 2 diabetes and suggested that mass screening of prediabetic subjects and aggressive risk modification and close follow-up should be considered for prediabetic subjects with metabolic syndrome.

KEY WORDS
Anthropometric measurement, Diabetic, Obesity, Prediabetics.

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Distal radius frature_Jain

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Assessment of functional outcomes in late presenting elderly patients with unstable distal radius fractures by cast application: A prospective study
Jain VK,1 Verma A,2 Sharma G3
Associate Professor,1 Assistant Professor,2 Senior Resident3
1-3Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru Memorial Medical College & Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Memorial Hospital, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
ABSTRACT
Aim: We will evaluate the functional outcomes in elderly patients with unstable distal end radius fractures who were not willing for operative treatment and were managed conservatively with cast application.Background:

Despite 200 years of medical literature proving the complexity and non-solved problems in treating distal radius fractures, in no other fracture, intra-articular mal-union, and metaphyseal mal-alignment is so broadly accepted.

Materials and Methods:

30 elderly patients with unstable distal radius fractures with mean age of 57.1 years were managed conservatively and observed for an average period of 6 months, and functional and radiological outcomes were assessed.

Results:

Patient related wrist evaluation system showed all groups had minimal functional disability. Radiological assessment by Sarmiento et al. modifi cation of Lidstorm’s scoring showed that 33.3% patients in Group 1A had poor radiographic scores, 50% patients in Group 1B had good radiographic scores whereas, in Group 2, 53.3% patients had fair radiographic scores. Functional results were not found to be correlated with radiological outcomes.

Conclusion:

In elderly patients, patients having low functional demands or patients presenting to us late and not willing for any surgical treatment, mal-alignment, and articular incongruence can be accepted, as radiological outcomes in this study does not correlate with the functional outcomes.

KEY WORDS
Colles, conservative, distal radius, elderly, low demand, patient related wrist evaluation.

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Intrauterine fetal death_Mathuria

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Evaluation of intrauterine foetal death at tertiary care center
Mathuriya G,1 Bunkar N2
Associate Professor,1 Resident2
1-2Department Department of Gynaecology & Obstetrics, M.G.M. Medical College & M.Y. Hospital, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
ABSTRACT
Aims and Objectives:To identify the risk factors and to evaluate measures, to reduce complications, and to improve maternal outcome.Materials and Methods:

This was a prospective study from December 2012 to December 2013 which was conducted at M.G.M. Medical College and M.Y. Hospital, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India, in the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology. All the patients are having fetal death beyond 20 weeks of gestation and/or birth weight >500 g were included in the study. Maternal and fetal outcome were analyzed. Mode of delivery and associated complications were studied.

Results:

Total numbers of deliveries were 13500. Incidence of intrauterine death (IUD) at our center was 38.30 per 1000. 68.83% were antepartum, and 36.17% were intrapartum. Congenital malformations were responsible for 12.77% cases. Among the identifi able causes, placental causes (17.99%), and hypertensive disorders (15.47%) were most common followed by severe anemia (6.58%). The most devastating complication of IUD was disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) found in 28 patients (5.42%).

Conclusion:

The present study has emphasized upon the need for augmentation of health services for the pregnant mother, because the extra attention paid to the mother during the pregnant state goes a long way in improving both maternal and fetal survival. The majority of fetal deaths in our study could have been prevented by appropriate antenatal and intranatal care. Decrease in the incidence of IUD would signifi cantly reduce the perinatal mortality.

KEY WORDS
Antepartum foetal deaths, disseminated intravascular coagulation, intrapartum foetal deaths, intrauterine foetal death.

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Effect of Yoga on Blood Sugar_Suman Rai

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Comparison of effect of yoga on fasting blood sugar level,lipid profile and blood pressure in diabetes patient with addiction and without addiction
Suman Rai,1 Julka K,2 Chaorasia RS
Assistant Professor,1,3 Associate Professor2
1Department of Physiology, Index Medical College Hospital & Research Centre, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India2Department of Radiodiagnosis, Index Medical College Hospital & Research Centre, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India3Department of Anatomy, Index Medical College Hospital & Research Centre, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
ABSTRACT
AimIn the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the benefi cial effects of pranayama on glycemic control, hypertension and dyslipidemia between addicted diabetic and non-addicted diabetic patients.

Background

Diabetes is a global epidemic and it has been posing a biggest threat ever witnessed with devastating human, social and economic consequences.

Material Methods

The study was conducted on 28 male patients suffering from diabetes mellitus Type-II between the age group of 30-60 years, for the period of 6 month at Index Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Indore. Subject will be practicing yoga or simple pranayama (breathing exercise) for approximately 5 min for a period of 6 months.

Results

The result of this study suggests that after 6 months of yogic exercises there is a significant decline in fasting blood sugar level of subjects who have no addiction, but lipid profile and blood pressure do not show any significant change either on addicted or non-addicted diabetes patients. The effect of yoga practice on various parameters were recorded and statistically analyzed by paired t-test for evaluation.

Conclusion

Diabetes mellitus silently progress it compromises the function of many of the system so, people should not delay in achieving the effective control. Yoga can be an adjuvant, but not a replacement for tested and tried medical management of diabetes mellitus Type II.

KEY WORDS
Addiction, diabetes, Pranayama.

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Nutritional Rehabilitation_Balkishan Sharma

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Role of nutrition rehabilitation center and dietary practices of mother associated with malnutrition and anemia among children
Richa Gupta,1 Balkishan Sharma2

Research scholar,1 Associate Professor (Biostatistics)2

1Department of Food and Nutrition, New Girls Degree College, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India

2Department of Community Medicine, Sri Aurobindo Medical College & P.G. Institute, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT
Background

Malnutrition has acknowledged and well documented. Optimal nutrient intake contributes significantly to malnutrition and anemia. The authors aimed to assess the significance of nutrition rehabilitation center and knowledge of dietary practices of mother to cope with anemia among severely malnourished children.

Material Methods

A prospective observational study was conducted at different Nutritional Rehabilitation Centers (NRCs). 250 severe under five malnourished children (<−3 standard deviation) selected as subjects. 200 subjects were included in the study group who were counseled in nutrition rehabilitation centers while 50 subjects served as control chosen from different slum areas. Study and control subjects were monitored at the time of admissions and after a follow-up of 3 months. 

Results

No significant (P > 0.05) difference and association were detected in control. More than half (62.5%) of mothers in the study group has gained knowledge of nutrition after counseling at NRCs and measured with highly significant association between knowledge of mothers regarding nutrition (P < 0.001), about growth elements (P < 0.001), hemoglobin enhancer element (P < 0.001), and feed during birth (P < 0.001) with measurements (baseline and final). Moreover, the knowledge of dietary practices of the mother is significantly influenced the malnutrition and anemic status of children impacted the effectiveness of NRCs.

Conclusion

NRCs have been playing a prominent role to cope with malnutrition along with anemia. Appropriate counseling of mothers in nutrition rehabilitation center about knowledge of nutrition and dietary practices may be provided potentially to prevent malnutrition and anemia among children.

KEY WORDS
Anemia, iron deficiency, malnutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, mother’s knowledge, nutrients.

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Platelet count by PS_Ritu Bajpai

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Platelet estimation by peripheral smear: Reliable, rapid, cost effective method to assess degree of thrombocytopenia 
Bajpai R,1 Rajak C,2 Poonia M1

PG Resident,1,3 Professor2

1Department of Physiology, Shyam Shah Medical College, Rewa, Madhya Pradesh, India

2Department of Physiology, Shyam Shah Medical College, Rewa, Madhya Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT
AimTo compare the estimation of platelet count done by peripheral smear method and by automated cell counter.

Background

Thrombocytopenia is associated with many diseases such as malaria, dengue, pregnancy-induced hypertension, etc., and is one of the critical parameters in patient management. The automated method is considered as the most reliable method. It is simple, fast, and most widely used, but the accurate count of platelets by automated cell counters is not available for all patients, especially in rural areas. In such settings, platelet estimation by peripheral smear is more feasible, than by automated cell counter in thrombocytopenia patients.

Material Methods

A total of 92 ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid samples of patients were received in the laboratory and platelet count was evaluated by two techniques: (1) Automated platelet count, (2) Assessment of platelet count on Leishman’s stained smear.

Results

There is no signifi cant (P = 0.69) difference of values between our method of platelet estimation (0.94 ± 0.29 lacs/mm3) when compared with that of automated cell counter platelet value (0.91 lacs/mm3 ± 0.27).

Conclusion

The method of platelet estimation by peripheral smear is useful as a rapid, cheap method to assess platelet count and can be done in rural hospital settings.

KEY WORDS
Peripheral smear, platelet, thrombocytopenia.

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Acessory Abductor_HannahSugirthabai

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Study on accessory abductor dieiti minimi
Aruna S1,RajilaRajendran HS2, Vaithianathan G2, Balaji T2, Saran S2


1Department of Anatomy, Indira Gandhi Medical College & Research Institute, Pondicherry

2Department of Anatomy, Chettinad Hospital & Research Institute, IT Highway, Kelambakkam, Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu, India

ABSTRACT
Background

Abductor digiti minimi (ADM) along with other hypothenar muscles, is prone to lot of variations. Its close relation to the ulnar neurovascular bundle makes it an important muscle. The most common being the presence of accessory slips (accessory ADM [AADM]). The embryological basis for such slips, their morphology and their relation to ulnar neurovascular bundle were studied in detail.

Material Methods

A total of 100 upper limbs (80 males and 20 females) were studied for the presence or absence of AADM and its relation to ulnar nerve (UN) and vessels were studied in detail.

Results

Of these 100, four limbs had AADM, in which three were superficial to the ulnar artery and nerve and hence compressing them.

Conclusion

Presence of AADM can result in hypothenar hammer syndrome of ulnar artery and/or in compression neuropathy of UN and cause undue problems during any flap surgeries and other procedures of the hand.

KEY WORDS
Accessory abductor digiti minimi, compression neuropathies, hypothenar hammer syndrome, ulnar artery, ulnar nerve.

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Holy water_Zewdu

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Prevalence of use of holy water as complementary treatment among PLWHA at Debrebrihan Referral Hospital and Health Centre, North East, Ethiopia: Cross-sectional study
Kebede A,1 Shewangizaw Z2
Regional monitoring and evaluation advisor,1 Lecturer2
1Department of Monitoring & Evaluation, Regional Monitoring and Evaluation Advisor, Management Science for Health,2Departmnet of Nursing, Collage of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia
ABSTRACT
AimThe study was intended to determine the level of use of holy water as antiretroviral (ARV) treatment among people living with human immune virus (HIV)/AIDS (PLWHA) at Debrebrihan Hospital and Health Centre, Northeast, Ethiopia.Background

Holy water use in the form of a drink and a shower is the main treatment used by the PLWHAs together with other spiritual practices. A growing number of PLWHA in Ethiopia today are relocating to holy water sites.

Material Methods

A cross-sectional study design with systematic random sampling through a structured questionnaire by way of interview among 422 respondents in Debrebrihan Hospital and Health Centre from December 26 2011 to January 26, 2012 were conducted. Single proportion formula with P = 50% used to determine the sample size. Frequency and percentage were computed by the SPSS statically software.

Results

A total of 422 respondents was included in the study with a median age of 35 years; most of them were females 262 (62.1%) and 168 (39.8%) were married. Among the respondents 282 (66.8%) had experience of using holy water. The result also shown that 73 (25.9%) of respondents reported that it is not convenient to take medication while using holy water with spiritual fear of using ARV drugs and holy water together 51 (69.9%).

Conclusion

The study concludes that the use of holy water as treatment of HIV/AIDS by patients and more than half of the study participants visit the holy water site b/c of most of them believe which is a result of sanity and punishment from God. The findings have also important implication in the use of mixed treatment for drug adherence through appropriate advocacy, education and cultural appropriate nearby treatment site depends on the study finding.

KEY WORDS
Adherence, alternative medicine, antiretroviral drugs, spiritual, traditional

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Lower limb amputation_Nadeep Ali

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Current trends of major lower limb amputations at a tertiary care center of Jammu, India

Maqsood M,1 Ali N,2 Bhat A,2 Bangroo FA,2 Dhanda MS,3 Singh R4

Junior Resident,1 Senior Resident,2 Assistant Professor,3 Associate Professor4

1Department of Anaesthesiology, Government Medical College, Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir, India

2,3Department of Orthopaedics, Shaheed Hasan Khan Mewati Government Medical College Mewat, Haryana, India

4Department of Orthopaedics, Government Medical College, Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir, India

ABSTRACT
AimThe aim of this study is to look for the current and any changing trends in the major lower limb amputations (LLAs) in the developing countries. Background

Amputation is the last treatment option in limbs, which are not salvageable or when the diseased limb poses a threat to the life of the patient. Indications of LLA are many, but trauma is the leading cause of major LLA in the developing nations, while as peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and diabetes is the most common indication in developed nations.

Material Methods

This prospective study was conducted from December 2012 to October 2013 in Government Medical College, Jammu, a tertiary care center of North India. Demographic profile of the patients along with indications, level of amputation, peri-operative complications and additional procedures required in the patients who had major LLAs during the study period were recorded. The date was analyzed by appropriate statistical tests.

Results

There were 33 major LLAs performed at an average rate of 3 per month. Average age of patients was 43.5 years with 88.87% patients being males. 30.56% amputations were traumatic while as PVD and diabetes was the etiology in 19.44% and 16.67% amputations, respectively. Two patients expired in the post-operative period. Infection of the stump was the most common local complication in the post-operative period.

Conclusion

Trauma still is the most common cause of LLAs in the developing nations, but amputations for complications of diabetes is on the rise and may be the leading etiology in future.

KEY WORDS
Amputation, Buerger’s disease, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease.

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Road traffic accident_Seth Sarad

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A retrospective study of road traffic accidents – injury characteristics, management and outcome at Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital, Bareilly
Seth S,1 Agarwal K,2 Agarwal P3
Associate Professor,1 Professor,2 Internship Student3
1-3Department of Surgery, Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India
ABSTRACT
Aim

This is a retrospective study carried out in Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital, Bareilly to study the injury characteristics, management and outcome of road traffic accidents and factors responsible for these injuries.

Background

Urbanization has led to an increased number of vehicles on the roads. This together with an extreme apathy on the part of authorities to implement traffic rules has led to a phenomenal rise in the number of road traffic accidents. Lack of a proper pre-hospital care system has only added to the woes. Thus, the need for this study.

Material Methods

All case records of road traffic accident victims admitted to the hospital between January and
December 2013 were analyzed statistically with respect to their demographic profile, injury characteristics, management and outcome. The revised trauma score was used to assess the patients and study its reliability in predicting mortality at the time of presentation to the casualty.

Results

This study showed that the majority of crash victims were males in the age group 21-40 years accounting for huge economic losses for their families and the country at large. Motorized
two-wheeler accounted for 62.5% of the accidents. Musculoskeletal injuries (57.5%) were the most common injuries, followed by those to the face, neck, and head. Local wound treatment (72%) was the most common surgical procedure performed. About 12.5% of the trauma victims did not survive their injury.

Conclusion

Road traffic accidents are preventable. Strict traffic laws and penalties have to be imposed to curb this ever growing menace.

KEY WORDS
Accidents, Wounds and Injuries, Treatment outcomes.

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