Category Archives: Review Articles

Brachytherapy planning_Goyal

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Dose calculations in high-dose rate brachytherapy planning for cancer treatment
Goyal BN,1 Tripathi PT,2 Reddy RS3
ABC,1 ABC,2 ABC3
1-3Department of ???, Manipal Eshwar Nagar, Manipal – 576 104, Karnataka, India
ABSTRACT
This article provides the overview of current literature regarding the application of high-dose rate planning and optimization techniques. A summary of commonly used optimization technique known as heuristics method (stochastic and deterministic) is also provided.
KEY WORDS
Brachytherapy, high-dose rate, optimization, treatment planning.

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Carcinoma of Anal Canal_Gupta AK

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Cancers of anal canal: A review article 
Gupta AK,1 Gupta AK,2 Gupta A,3 Gupta A,4 Pargi AK,5 Dubepuria R6
PG Resident,1,5,6 Assistant Professor,2 Professor & Head,3 Associate Professor4
1,2,3,5,6Department of Surgery, Gajra Raja Medical College, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India6Department of Radio diagnosis, Gajra Raja Medical College, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India
ABSTRACT
Malignant tumours of the anal canal are rare and diverse group of tumours of gastrointestinal tract and comprises of 2.5 percent of all digestive system malignancy in United States. Although incidence rates are still low, there has been a significant increase in squamous cell carcinoma over the last 50 years. HIV infected homosexual men appear particularly at risk. HPV DNA is detectable in most anal squamous cell carcinomas. Despite its short length, the anal canal produces a variety of tumour types reflecting its complex anatomic and histological structure.Squamous, glandular, transitional, and melanocytic components occur at this site, either alone, or in combination. Due to the paucity of this malignancy it has been difficult to establish generally accepted guidelines for treatment. While for some neoplasms, the treatment of choice is clear-cut, for others it is still controversial. This review article makes an attempt to clarify current clinical, pathological and therapeutic options for anal canal tumors in the light of recent information.
KEY WORDS
Abdominoperineal Ressection (APR), Anal Canal Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV).

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Carcinoma of Anal Canal_Gupta A

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To find out the diabetic risk in study population by subjecting them to Indian diabetic risk scale (IRDS)

Chourasia H,1 Chourasia  RS2

Assistant Professor1,2

1Department of Physiology, Sewakunj MIMS Medical College & Research Centre, Indore, MP, India

2Department of Anatomy, Index Medical College Hospital & Research Centre, Indore, MP, India

ABSTRACT
Background

Diabetes as a non-communicable disease is significant public health problem the prevalence rate all the world over is raising. Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading cause of long term complications and a major health hazard in a developing country like India. Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IRDS) developed by Dr. Mohan and his colleagues in 2005 is one of the strongest predictor of incident diabetes in India.

Material Methods

The present study entitled was conducted in the department of Physiology Gandhi Medical College and Associated Hamidia Hospital, Bhopal. 120 subjects in the age group range of 30-60 years attending the different medical OPDs.

Results

The mean age of the sixty subjects included in the control group was 42.61±8.70 years and sixty Prediabetic subjects were 45.43±8.77 years. Maximum numbers of Prediabetes were in the age group of 40 – 50 years.

Conclusion    

The results of the study will help to formulate strategies for future preventive efforts and delay the onset of type 2 diabetes.

KEY WORDS
Diabetes mellitus, Diabetic Risk Group, Indian Diabetic Risk Score.

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PBL Vs Traditional curricullum_Syed

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Comparing Problem Based Learning Curriculum and the Traditional Curriculum based on outcome
 Kabir SA,1 Kabir SI,2 Mohammad S,3 Kallachil T,1 Dissanayake T4

PG Resident1-4

 1Department of Surgery, Victoria Infirmary Hospital, Glasgow G42 9TY, UK2Department of Surgery, Wycombe General Hospital, High Wycombe HP11 2TT, UK3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, County Hospital, Stafford ST16 3SA, UK4University of Nottingham, Nottinghamshire NG7 2RD, UK
ABSTRACT
It has been argued and shown by various outcome studies that traditional knowledge based assessments of curriculum outcomes have minimal or no difference in learners graduating from either PBLC or the traditional curriculums.A literature search on problem based learning has shown several comparison studies between graduates from the PBLC with those from the traditional method of teaching, these include: the academic process; program evaluation; academic achievement; graduates’ performance, specialty choices and practice characteristics; and faculty members’ satisfaction.This review article will compare PBLC graduates with the traditional or conventional style of learning, and based on the above; conclude weather PBLC needs to be implemented in medical schools?
KEY WORDS
Medical education, Outcome based medical curriculum, Problem based learning, Traditional curriculum

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Arabic Curriculum_Abdelaziz A

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Arabic Guidelines for Curriculum Development in Health Professions Education 

Abdelaziz A,1 Hassan N2

Lecturer of Medical Education1,2

1,2Medical Education Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt

ABSTRACT
Worldwide there is an increasing care of academic programs and research in Health Professions Education (HPE). Despite this there is still a lack of the Arabic academic programs and literature related to this field. The Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office of the World Health Organization (EMRO-WHO) is interested in enriching the Arabic literature of HPE in order to promote education and training of health manpower.In 2012, Suez Canal University, with the support of EMRO-WHO, has inaugurated a Diploma of Health Professions Education conducted through distance e-learning in Arabic language. The target group of the Diploma are health professions educators and trainers in the Arab region.To provide convenient, contextual and case sensitive literature for study in the Arabic Diploma of HPE, a set of practical guidelines were developed by a group of experts and consultants. Among these, practical guidelines for curriculum development were developed and published in an Arabic book.
KEY WORDS
Curriculum Development, Health Professions Education, Educational Objectives, Content, Methods of instruction and Students’ Assessment

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Gogia_Ebola virus

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Outbreak of Ebola virus click alarm for devastating epidemic 
Gogia P,1 Ambey R,2 Singh A,3 Gaur A,4 Patel GS5

Post Graduate Student,1  Assistant Professor,2 Associate Professor,3,4 Professor5

1,2,4,5Department of Pediatrics, G R Medical College, Gwalior, M P, India

3Department of Pathology, Index Medical College Hospital and Research Center, Indore, MP, India

ABSTRACT
Ebola viral disease formerly known as ebola hemorrhagic fever is a severe, often fatal illness in human, outbreaks having case fatality rate upto 90%.It was first noted in 1976 , and is a WHO risk group 4 pathogen, many outbreaks have occurred since then but 2014 outbreak is worst outbreak in terms of cases and fatalities. Unfortunately the infecting Ebola virus detected this outbreak is Zaire strain, the most pathogenic strain of Ebola. Health agencies are forced to term this outbreak as an “unprecedented epidemic” seeing its devastating impact.
KEY WORDS
Ebola, global alert, Zmapp

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singh_pbl

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Problem based learning: what and why 
Singh A1, Ambey R2
Associate Professor1, Assistant Professor2

1Department of Pathology, Index Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Indore, MP, India

2Department of Pediatrics, G R Medical College, Gwalior, M P, India

ABSTRACT
The goal of Medical Education is to produce qualified Physician. Though we are using different method to train undergraduate students, but Problem based learning (PBL) is an innovative teaching learning method that impart knowledge, enhance intrinsic motivation , promote self learning, encourage clinical reasoning and also encourage them to work in a team. Activation of prior knowledge, encoding specificity and elaboration of knowledge are three principles of acquiring new information. These principles have been included in to the seven jump theory. In conclusion, the PBL is student centered self motivational, active and a challenging method of teaching and learning both for faculties as well as students.
KEY WORDS
Basic Science Curriculum, Medical Education, Problem Based Learning

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gogia_ebolavirus

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Meropenem: Current PERSPECTIVES
Goyal V K1, Rajput S S2
Assistant Professor1, Senior Resident2

1Department of Pediatrics, Dr S N Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

2Department of Pediatrics, G R Medical College, Gwalior, M P, India

ABSTRACT
Meropenem is an ultra broad spectrum parenteral carbapenem with excellent safety profile and minimal drug interactions. It is effective in a variety of tissue infections. But to prevent emerging drug resistance, its use should be restricted to complicated/serious infections not amenable to other antimicrobials
KEY WORDS
Carbenem, meropenem, drug resistant enterobacteriaceae (DRE).

 

verma_proton

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Proton Pump Inhibitors in Gastroesophageal reflux in Pretems: A Systematic Review
Verma N1, Pancholi R2, Verma R3
Consultant Neonatologist1, 2, Associate Professor3

1,2Department of Neonatology, Bansal Hospital, Bhopal, M P, India

3Department of Pharmacology, L N Medical College, Bhopal, M P, India

ABSTRACT
Background
Gastroesophageal reflux is primarily physiological in newborns, especially in prematures less than 34 weeks of gestation. Recently there has been a surge in the use of anti reflux medications especially proton pump inhibitors to treat significant reflux in newborns the rewards of which are questionable and hence their use needs to be addressed.
Material Methods
A PubMed search was done using the key words “gastroesophageal reflux”[all fields] and “preterm”[all fields] and/or “term” [all fields] and/or “newborn”[all fields]. The articles included were randomized trials, prospective studies, retrospective studies, review articles and observational studies.
Conclusion
As per current evidence, the risk to reward ratio of proton pump inhibitors does not favour it to be routinely recommended for treatment of gastroesophageal reflux in preterm newborns.
KEY WORDS
Gastroesphageal reflux, Preterm, Newborn, Proton pump inhibitors

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goyal_meropenem

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Meropenem: Current PERSPECTIVES
Goyal V K1, Rajput S S2
Assistant Professor1, Senior Resident2

1Department of Pediatrics, Dr S N Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

2Department of Pediatrics, G R Medical College, Gwalior, M P, India

ABSTRACT
Meropenem is an ultra broad spectrum parenteral carbapenem with excellent safety profile and minimal drug interactions. It is effective in a variety of tissue infections. But to prevent emerging drug resistance, its use should be restricted to complicated/serious infections not amenable to other antimicrobials
KEY WORDS
Carbenem, meropenem, drug resistant enterobacteriaceae (DRE).

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